Wednesday, 26 June 2019

Liverpool Threatened With World Heritage Site Status Deletion. Again.


How many times can Liverpool get away with bluffing Unesco.
Last year there were frantic negotiations between Unesco and UK officials at DCMS to save Liverpool's deletion from The World Heritage register.
After the UK Government gave assurances to The United Nations it was decided that Liverpool would not be deleted, pending strict criteria that had to be met.
Previous years had seen Unesco requesting a moratorium of new high rise developments in response to growing concern that the Liverpool planning authority were out of control and were not able to monitor developments in a manner appropriate for a city with World Heritage Site Status. Lime Street/Skelhorne Street developments were of particular concern.
Just look at the mediocrity that has been built. 

For over a decade now Liverpool has been running the Unesco deletion gauntlet. Dodging the bullet, its leaders acting like naughty schoolboys pretending they don't understand whats going on, promising they will uphold World Heritage principles.
All this whilst the Mayor of Liverpool was declaring publicly that World Heritage site Status is just a badge on the wall at the Town Hall.
This is the crude past of Liverpool rearing its ugly head yet again.
The lack of class within this city is the reason Liverpool was put on the World Heritage “At Risk” register, at the very same year that Aleppo and The Temple of Palmyra (That was subsequently destroyed by The Taliban).

The relentless push for development by Labour led council seems a throwback to an era that has blighted Liverpool's past.
I grew up in the Derek Hatton era.
My favourite bar was Kirklands, people come from all over the country to this trendy establishment housed in a Grade II listed old bakery. Look what they have done to it surrounded by …....student flats. A quick look round the corner shows how it also blights St Andrews Church Grade I listed that we fought to save despite the Council selling it to a convicted fraudster.
And look at what they have done to Lime Street. It is an architectural anachronism, made worse by the fact that each end of this monstrous carbuncle there are Grade II listed buildings. And all this adjacent the Historic Listed Lime street Station and St Georges Hall.
Lets not mention, oh alright we will, The Blind School opposite The Philharmonic Hall on Hardman Street.
It is with the deepest regret that I say, reluctantly that my city has been butchered to the state that its beautiful and historic listed structures now look alien in their own environment. The city can not face this relentless roller coaster of glass shoe boxes in the World Heritage Site.
Why does this current Mayor of Liverpool Joe Anderson want us to lose World Heritage Site Status?
He dodges the criticism through his £95,000 a year press agent who is there to assist his public persona. But Mayor, Joe Anderson has to take the blame for the mess that is Liverpool's architectural blight.
At this very moment in time with a World Heritage Committee meeting taking place in BAKU on 30th June 2019, there are no signs or a whisper of this International event that effects the city of Liverpool, from Liverpool City Council.
Hardly surprising that UNESCO have now made recommendations to delete Liverpool from the World Heritage list on 2020 after all the promises made to them by the UK government have cumulated in nothing but a smoke screen for dodgy developments led by The Mayoral Investment Fund.
Liverpool were given a lifeline after promising a new tall buildings policy.
Unesco have been requesting a DSoCR (Desired State of Conservation Report) since 2005.
A Desired State of Conservation Report for the removal of the property from the “At Risk” Register was urgently requested by The Unesco World Heritage Centre for Europe in 2011.
It now appears that, after years of bluff and bravado by Liverpool City Council, Unesco have not received satisfactory documentation to believe that Liverpool and the UK Government are taking the matter seriously.
At one stage The DCMS who are ultimately responsible for all UK World Heritage Sites stated that they are powerless in the wake of the relentless push and lack of overall monitoring of Liverpools Planning Authority.
Unesco have stated quite clearly that Everton FC's proposed Stadium at Bramley Moore Dock is against the previous World Heritage Committee decisions for further developments.
Unesco state “ It is regrettable that the consultation process did not adequately address potential impact on the OUV of the property, nor alternative locations and the public were not informed about the potential negative consequences”
To put it in context Joe Anderson, an Everton supporter is pulling the wool over the publics eyes in favour of his friends at Peel Holdings.
Joe Anderson was elected on a ticket that declared the creation of 20,000 jobs within The proposed Liverpool Waters development.
Eight years later not a single brick has been laid.
Lets see what Unesco think.




I, and my heritage colleagues have spent 15 years warning consecutive council leaders of the threat to losing World Heritage Site Status.
Whilst understanding the need to regenerate we have tried to advise that the OUV or put it more clearly the aesthetic values of this great city were being eroded by the monotonous desire to build vertical blocks of student flats that will become tenements of the future.
Last year it was declared that Liverpool had escaped deletion from the list.
This news was distorted into a good news story. Maybe it was.
But it is only prolonging the eventual in my opinion.


It has broken my heart watching my cherished views be despoiled by inappropriate urban development that is no more than civic vandalism sanctioned by a local authority, led by no more than Spivs.

And even now the news of Liverpool's proposed deletion from The World Heritage List is being suppressed.

Ms Isabelle Anatolle-Gabriel from Unesco even made a visit to the city in 2017 to address the threat to the public direct.

The world news that will be created by this devious intention to fluff the pockets of a few council friendly developers will have ramifications for every citizen of the city of Liverpool.
Liverpool World Heritage site status that Joe Anderson described as no more than a badge on the wall, at the Town Hall, will have to be replaced, by a badge of shame.

UNESCO STATE.
https://whc.unesco.org/en/soc/3881 Read more by clicking the link.
Factors affecting the property identified in previous reports
  • Governance: Lack of overall management of new developments
  • High impact research/monitoring activities: Lack of analysis and description of the townscape characteristics relevant to the Outstanding Universal Value of the property and important views related to the property and its buffer zone
  • Legal framework: Lack of established maximum heights for new developments along the waterfront and for the backdrops of the World Heritage property
  • Social/cultural uses of heritage 
  • Buildings and development: Commercial development, housing, interpretative and visitor facilities
  • Lack of adequate management system/management plan



It is plain that we are up for deletion from the World Heritage List in June 2020.

This time we may not escape. Read the Unesco Draft Decision below.

It is clear that Liverpool City Council have no intention, or are capable of being able uphold World Heritage principles.


Draft Decision: 43 COM 7A.47
The World Heritage Committee,
  1. Having examined
  2. Document WHC/19/43.COM/7A,
  3. Recalling Decision 36 COM 7B.93, 37 COM 7A.35, 38 COM 7A.19, 39 COM 7A.43, 40 COM 7A.31, 41 COM 7A.22 and 42 COM 7A.7 adopted at its 36th (Saint Petersburg, 2012), 37th (Phnom Penh, 2013), 38th (Doha, 2014), 39th (Bonn, 2015), 40th (Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016), 41st (Krakow, 2017) and 42nd (Manama, 2018) sessions respectively;
  4. Acknowledges the increasing engagement of civil society in the care of the property and its World Heritage status;
  5. Recalls its repeated serious concerns over the impact of the proposed Liverpool Waters developments in the form presented in the approved Outline Planning Consent (2013-2042) which constitutes an ascertained threat in conformity with paragraph 179 of the Operational Guidelines;
  6. Although noting that the State Party has submitted an updated and revised draft Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger (DSOCR), notesthat comprehensive assessment of the proposed DSOCR by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies is still not feasible, as the approval of the DSOCR relies on the content of additional documents, which are yet to be prepared or finalized, including the Local Plan, the revised Supplementary Planning Document, the majority of the Neighbourhood Masterplans, and the Tall Building (skyline) Policy;
  7. Reiterates that the submission of a further draft of the DSOCR by the State Party and its adoption by the Committee should come prior to the finalization and approval of the necessary planning tools and regulatory framework and regrets that the alternative proposal of the Committee, expressed in Decision 42 COM 7A.7, for substantive commitments to limitation on the quantity, location and size of allowable built form, has not been followed;
  8. Although also noting that Peel Holdings (Liverpool Waters developer) reiterated its confirmation to Liverpool City Council (LCC) that there is no likelihood of the Liverpool Waters development scheme coming forward in the same form of the Outline Planning Consent, strongly requests the commitment of the State Party that the approved Outline Planning Consent (2013-2042) will not be implemented by Peel Holdings or other developers, and its revised version will not propose interventions that will impact adversely on the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property, including its authenticity and integrity;
  9. Expresses its extreme concern that the State Party has not complied with the Committee’s request to adopt a moratorium for new buildings within the property and its buffer zone, until the Local Plan, the revised Supplementary Planning Document, the Neighbourhood Masterplans, and the Tall Building (skyline) Policy are reviewed and endorsed by the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, and the DSOCR is completely finalized and adopted by the World Heritage Committee, and urges the State Party to comply with this request;
  10. Also regrets that the submission of Princes Dock Masterplan and changes to the Liverpool Water scheme to the World Heritage Centre took place after their adoption by the LCC, and expresses its utmost concernthat these documents are putting forward plans, which does not ensure the adequate mitigation of the potential threats for which the property was inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger;
  11. Also reiterates its consideration that the recent planning permissions issued for the Liverpool Waters scheme and elsewhere within the property and its buffer zone, and the stated inability of the State Party to control further developments, clearly reflect inadequate governance systems and planning mechanisms that will not allow the State Party to comply with Committee Decisions and will result in ascertained threat on the OUV of the property;
  12. Finally requests the State Party to submit to the World Heritage Centre, by 1 February 2020, an updated report on the state of conservation of the property and on the implementation of the above, for examination by the World Heritage Committee at its 44th session in 2020, as well as a DSOCR and corrective measures that could be considered for adoption by the Committee;
  13. Decides to retain Liverpool – Maritime Mercantile City (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) on the List of World Heritage in Danger, with a view to considering its deletion from the World Heritage List at its 44th session in 2020, if the Committee Decisions related to the adoption of the DSOCR and the moratorium for new buildings are not met.






Thursday, 28 February 2019

Antiques Roadshow 2019 Valuation Dates.

Antiques Roadshows 2019

The locations for Antiques Roadshows in 2019

Wednesday, 20 February 2019

George Ehrlich Bronze-Piece of the Week.


Austrian-born sculptor, draughtsman and etcher

He is well known for his delicate and tender studies of children. His bronzes are mainly studies of adolescents or animals, though he also made a number of portrait busts and reliefs.


 He was engaged for many public commissions.










This work is 38cm high and is a study of a young child. 
Arms crossed across the torso they are wearing a loose fitting tunic with a wide kneckline and is signed in the bronze and numbered in latin numerals, I/VI which intimates this is part of a series of cast bronzes.
 I was told it was purchased directly from the artist.
The face has a real sense of feeling even a look of nonsulent melancholy.
 The child seems to be wearing a cap. But then again it could be a bobbin tied in the hair. The child seems to be bound in the pose not able to motion. Gazing out in sadness. Though I feel there is a deeper underlying meaning to the chosen pose, with its Pierrot-esque feel, that the artist wished to convey.
George Ehrlich (I always have to check that spelling) came to Britain in 1937 presumably to escape the Nazis. He had served in the Austrian army during WWI.
George Ehrlich (1897-1966)
Born in Vienna Austria in 1897.
Studied at Kunstgewerbeschule, the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts under the architect Strnad, 1912-15.


He served in the Austrian Army during the First World War. He initially trained as a draughtsman though would study the art of etching.
First one-man exhibition at the Galerie Hans Goltz, Neue Kunst, Munich, 1920. where he lived 1919-21.
He then moved to Berlin 1921 where he lived until 1923.
He began to make sculpture in 1926. First public commission Vienna 1928
Married Bettina Bauer, painter, 1930. His sculpture included in the Austrian pavilion at the Venice Biennale 1932, 1934, 1936 and again 1958.
He then moved back to Vienna where he lived until 1937.
Came to London as a refugee in 1937 and took British nationality. Awarded gold medal at Paris World Exhibition 1937.
Became naturalised British citizen in 1947.
His life-size bronze Bull for Municipality of Vienna was constructed 1959-60.
Awarded the Sculpture Prize of the City of Vienna 1961; elected ARA 1962.




The Arts Council organised a solo exhibition in 1964 which opened at the Aldeburgh Festival in June 1960 Then onto Garratt Green School, Wandsworth, London 1961.
Born in Vienna Austria in 1897.
Lived from 1963 in Italy and Austria, and died in Lucerne.

Exhibitions include : regular exhibitor at Royal Academy from 1940; Arcade Gallery, London 1945 (solo); Leicester Galleries, London 1950 (solo); Lefevre Gallery, London 1953 (solo); Sculpture in the Home, Arts Council 1946; LCC 1948, 54; SB 1951; AC 1957, 60, 61; VB 1958; Middelheim, Antwerp 1959.

Collections include: Tate Gallery; Arts Council; British Museum; Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

Commissions include : Two Sisters 1944 for Essendon School for Girls, Hertfordshire; Boy and Girl with Puppy for Hastings High School, Burbage, Leicestershire c. 1956; Sarel House, Bethnal
Further reading: ‘London Commentary’, in Studio, August 1955, Vol. 150, No. 749.
E. Tietze-Conrat, Georg Ehrlich, (London, 1956)
A. Haskell, Georg Ehrlich, Bruton Gallery, Bruton, Somerset, 1978, (exh. cat.).
Biography from Whiteley (2001) with additional information from Hall (2004) and from Judith LeGrove.
Wealth at death: £29,129 0s. 0d.
Probate date: 15 February 1967

He is often associated with Alexander Archipenko   Read More Here

Sorry No Longer Available





Thursday, 24 January 2019

Auguste Bauer Bronze Venus-Piece of the Week


Its that time of the year again. January, its the customary time to pay your tax as many of you self employed antique dealers out there may realise 

So this is also the time of the year to.....take stock, literally. 
Well when I say take stock I mean take stock of what needs to be sold to pay the tax owed, if any.
It is with deep regret that I put my little bronze beauty up for sale.

 This has never been stock in fact but a personally owned sculpture that I have held dear for decades.
The beautifully patina-ed bronze measuring some 50 cm on a Brocatelle marble square base has been like part of the family to me. 
It has been there with so many house moves. 
But now taking fresh stock of my musts and needs at the present time I have indeed decided to sell.
I started off collecting Art Deco bronzes of note but I have never been able to better this bronze. Whether fond of Art Deco or not the Neo-Classical style is as attractive as any. 


Which is the reason I have held on to it for so long.
This sculpture modelled in Contaposto pose is as good as it gets. Combined with it being a Venus. It ticks a lot of boxes in a lot of peoples list of wants. As it has mine for so long. She is 54cm high and has the most amazing patina. Please don't buy it.




BAUER Auguste
Auguste Bauer (1868 – 1961) Born in Düsseldorf he began his training at the local Arts School, he then continued at the Museum of Decorative Arts.
From 1890 he studied at the Academy in Berlin, first with Ernst Herter, then in 1892 with Gerhard Janensch and Peter Breuer.
Bauer was a member of the Düsseldorf artist association ‘Malkasten’ and created public monuments and architectural sculptures. For example at the Girardet Bridge spanning the canal of the Königsalle in Düsseldorf and numerous monuments.

Sorry No Longer Available

Wednesday, 9 January 2019

Keller and Guerin Luneville Vase-Piece of the Week.


  I have had this beautiful pretty little vase for over a decade.Many have tried to prise it away from me but up to now I have not given in to the lure of....money. I keep thinking where am I going to find another one.
It is decorated so simply with floral decoration applied in enamel over a earthenware base. It looks like the flowers are swaying in the wind.
Its only 17cm high, and as a potter I can tell that the thrower has just patted the rim down creating a ever so delicately placed dimple around the neck of the piece where it becomes more rotund, that just gives it a little something extra.
Now even after all this time and without too much research I have to admit I don't know who the exact decorator is. I would love to think its a Ernest Bussiere piece but it could be Louis Majorelle or Lachenal. What I do know is its a little gem.
Signed K G Luneville that is the mark for Keller and Guerin.

In 1728 Jacques Chambrette established the first earthenware factory in Lorraine, in Lunéville besides the river Meuse, not far from Vezouse.
He formulated a new type of earthenware called "terre de Lorraine" in 1748 based on the study of English potteries.
He had great economic and artistic success.
The factory was awarded the status of Manufacture Royale de Fayence by the Ducs of Lorraine in 1749.
The Lunéville manufacture was ti rival the expanding English and German ceramics centres and Chambrette managed to successfully export his wares to Italy, Germany, Poland, Switzerland and even The Netherlands.
In 1786 Sébastien Keller bought Luneville from the Chambrette family following the bankruptcy of the pottery manufacturer in 1785. For the next 137 years, the Keller family controlled the company. In 1832, Sébastien Keller's son aligned with his brother-in-law Guérin to give birth to the mark K&G (or KG) from the names Keller and Guérin and during the following century, Lunéville was the seat of "Keller and Guérin" (Société KG).
Between 1700 and 1800 several faience manufacturers installed their companies in a tight network in Lorraine. The factories produced everyday utilitarian and decorative objects.
Since silver dinner services were prohibited by the king (who used the taxing of such objects to finance his wars), faience manufacturers were able to sell wares more easily.
The artisans were inspired by their surroundings; Subjects were decorated with naturalistic styles, faience was decorated with flowers, insects, real and fictitious animals and exotic figures. They produced faience dogs, which were placed in the halls of houses ( the French have an expression "to stare at each other like faience dogs").
Later on Chinese decorations, introduced by Jesuits who brought back examples from their often dangerous missions. Jacques Chambrette, who suffered from the high taxes that were imposed on him in the ducal region that was controlled on behalf of the King of France, coveted the episcopal area, which was connected to France, but where the influences of Louis XIV were much less smothering.
In 1758, Jacques Chambrette started a second faience factory in Saint-Clément, which lies in the Diocese of the Bishop of Metz. In the 19th century the originally German family Keller, soon allied with Guérin. This gave new life to the factory by industrialising it.
This was an era in which Lunéville and its surroundings provided very skillful workers.
The area around the faience factory, under patronage of Sainte Anne, developed.
In 1900, there were around 1,100 employees. The factory's products had a worldwide reputation and participated successfully in various fields of art and industrial exhibitions.
During the design period we know as Art Nouveau Keller and Guirin employed some of the most gifted designers Louis Majorelle and Ernest Bussiere were to create some of the finest designs. Lachenal would add to the design base of the company.
In 1922 Édouard Fenal, originally from Pexonne and Badonviller, bought the factories of Lunéville and Saint-Clément, so employment was guaranteed in Lunéville and Saint-Clément.
New designers were brought in to cater for the new wealth that was around and the new style that we now know as art deco rushed in with its geometric lines.
Mougin Brothers would help to bring the whole area into a new style.
The Second World War marked a recession.
The name Geo Conde is often seen on wares.
St Clement produced huge quantities of crackle glazed animaliar following the French tradition of sculpting the animal form that went back centuries.
The production of these in ceramic made them more affordable. Some of these animals were of varying quality some having slightly strange colour combinations of deep reds and blues that are highly collectible today.
In 1979 a new group was further developed by buying out the Sarreguemines ceramics complex. Édouard's son, Gilbert, was in charge of the group which also comprises Salins, Vitry-le-François and Digoin.
The Lunéville production stops in 1981.
Only the factory of Saint-Clément is still operational by1999.

In the renovated buildings nowadays small and medium sized companies are still working.

Friday, 30 November 2018

Theodore Deck-Ceramic Genius.

Recently the work of one of the most remarkable craftsmen has become sought after again. The appreciation of his work has never wained in the eyes of those who understand the art of the ceramist but here in England we have for so long concentrated on some of the work of rather average makers such as Susie Cooper and Charlotte Rhead. And of course Clarrice Cliff. Though Charlotte Rhead came from an illustrious family of ceramists. The Rheads were indeed a skilled bunch. But there is not many who can compare to the legacy that is left behind by Theodore Deck. (1823-1891)
What he did was de-industrialise the art of the potter running a workshop with around a score of craftsmen. He was inspired by the middle east and his Persian Ware is indeed now highly valued. It may not be clear as to the influence ha had on British ceramics but I see similarities with some of Burmantofts and by far the most important company in the style of the middle East Mintons.
Deck wrote a book called “La Faience”. I must get a copy of this book as I am informed by Peter Hyland that there is detailed technical information.
As a ceramist myself I have a thirst for the information that potters have or did have in the past. I suck this knowledge up, but the skill in interpreting the techniques are a different matter and trial and error is something that I have learned to take with a rather large dose of patience. Having glaze recipes is only half of it.
Josiah Wedgwood was a chemist first and foremost.
Deck's book La Fiaence was read by some of the best Louis Solon who began at Sevre before moving across the channel to Mintons, admired his writings.
Fiance the word derives from the town of Faenza in Northern Italy but Deck thought the word to be clouding the real historical sense of the fact thet the Persians were making fiaence long before the Italians. We now see some of this Persian ware was indeed Turkish, a style now called Iznik. Any type of earthenware decorated with an enamel or coloured glaze was accepted as Fiaence at the time
.
Deck was born in Guebwiller in the Alsace region of France. This was about 12 miles north-west of Mulhouse at the foot of the Vosges mountains. Mulhouse is the town where Christopher Dresser died. He will always be known for his designs for Mintons. His father Richard was a silk dyer. At secondary school near Belfort Theodore showed a particular love of chemistry. At 17 in 1840 he was forced to return home to Guebwiller to continue the family silk dyeing business along with his brother Xavier.
It didn't work out and he left for Strasbourg where he became a stove-makers apprentice.
Cast Iron stoves covered in ceramic tiles were commonplace in France and Germany. In the crowded marketplace the need to make something functional stand out was paramount to selling ones wares. He learned from his mentor Hugelin the art of using different coloured clays to inlay tiles. This style was kown as Saint Porchaire.
He was not to be kept still in the evenings he studied sculpture with Andre Friedrich.
He recalled how he had been fascinated by a painted terracotta figure he had seen on a school trip to Switzerland and when he asked who made it he was told “A potter”.
He must have liked the sound of this.
He went on his own in 1844 at the age of 21. The art of the stove maker was to travel and show off his work and he was noticed by manufactures who wished to employ him as he travelled through Germany learning local skills and styles along the way.
He made his way to Vienna where he made large stoves to for the Palace of Schonbrunn. He then went on to Budapest, Prague, even Berlin.
In 1847 he returned to France and began to work for Madame Vogt one of the leading stove makers. In 1848 work stopped at the factory when the Second Republic began. He retrned to Guebwiller and set up a small atelier to make vases and decorative objects, oh and stoves. It didnt work out too well for him and in 1851 he returned to Paris where Loius Napoleon had quietened down the unrest.
Madame Vogt's daughter Madame Dumas was his next employer where Deck became foreman. The Exposition Universalle of 1855 saw the Dumas factory exhibiting mosaic tile panels in many colours.
Mintons also exhibited that year with their “earthenwares and stonewares enamelled or glazed majolica. Deck would have seen these. He may also have found out that Minton had been developing low coloured glazes applied to earthenware body creating their majolica. Herbert Minton had seen Palissy ware on a visit to Rouen in 1849. Leon Arnoux had joined Minton in 1849 and became Art Director.
In 1856 he ventured out again with the help of his brother Xavier set up a new atelier at 20, rue Fontaine-au-Roi relocating to Boulevard Saint Jaques eventually moving from stove facings to ornamental ceramics and figures.
Had that school trip stayed with him all these years.
The Henry Deux had been mastered by Deck during his training and it was re-adopted.
The style was based on 16th century book binding designs. The potter Avisseau also reproduced this style that was taken up in the 1860's by Charles Toft at Minton.

He showed his creations at the 1861 Salon des Arts et Industries of 1861 and then the London International Exhibition of 1861. He displayed a copy of a 107cm high piece that was known to be in the Alhambra Palace in Spain before 1400. This vase is now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, acquired shortly after.
He was now firmly rooted in the middle east for his inspiration. Publications were now being made available showing drawings of Islamaic decorative stylles.
Recuil de dessins pour l'art et l'industrie by Orientalist Adalbert de Beaumont it was reissued 20 years later in 1859.
Owen Jones Grammar of Ornament would have been available to him in Paris.
It had reproductions of Arabian decoration and design.

The 1862 Exhibition saw him well received.
After moving rue de Vaugirirard in Paris.
1867 saw the more experienced Deck show off his technical quality that had been improving all the time.
He now employed trained Paris Salon artistes we in Britain would be less familiar with these artistes such as Jean Louis Hamon and Joseph-Victor Ranvier who painted in a Neo-Grec style. Ranvier would become his chief artist.
Felix Braquemond had worked for Criel Sevres and Haviland.
The artistic director of Christophle & Cie known for their gold and silver work, Emile Reiber supplied Deck with various shapes.
Proceeds from a piece of “collaboration” was always divided equally between Deck and the artist. Solon called this an “unprecidented collaboration.”
Solon published The History and description of Old French Faience in 1903.
In it he accounts Deck tells us the conditions were far from a sweatshop but were most ideal. He says the gatherings of artists of the Bohemian persuasion all gathered anxious to see the results of the last firing.
The V&A acquired several more objects and his reputation was growing wildly. His work often showed semi-clad nymphs some of which show a foretaste of W. S Coleman's work for Minton.
It is not known if the artists influenced each other but Colin Minton Campbell Director of Minton appointed Coleman in 1871 and was known to admire Deck's work.
Mintons were exhibitors in the 1867 Paris Exhibition and he purchased some of Deck's work, for his own collection.
He was offered the chance to half share (without any capital) in a pottery he planned to build....in Leeds.
Deck preferred to stay in Paris and declined.
Could this wealthy industrialist be John Holroyd who in 1863 bought the firm of Wilcox & Co Sanitary Ware near Leeds and in 1870 expanded the factory to trade as Burmantofts Pottery.
Burmantofts came close to Decks Persian ware it is an interesting thought what might have been.
He continued to experiment some of his shapes were now becoming Chinese in inspiration with naturalistic designs on white ground. His move into high fired porcelain in 1868 became cost pro-hibitive and were discontinued.
Deck stood in Municipal elections in Paris just after the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War which saw the siege of Paris. Armistice was signed in 1871 but at this time Alsace was taken over by Prussia. He decided to stay French as many Alsatians did.
In 1873 he scored notable success in Vienna being awarded Medalion d'Honnneur.
This is when Edmond Lachenal was mentioned prominantly on his stand.
Edmond would go on to found his own factory. His son Roaul would continue his work through the 30's into a more geometric style.
Deck now had a shop close to the Grande Opera on Rue Halevy.
So it was the period we now call Aesthetic Movement that saw a seed change in styles and inspiration came from all over the world not just the middle east and new artists and industrialists were always looking to exploit the prevailing taste. This melting pot of design was being formed and it is easy to look back now and talk about it in sequence, but at the time a movement was in force that could not be stopped and wealth was available to purchase. History was, literally being made.
It was said in contemporary account published in the Pottery Gazette that his pottery “stands tranquil and as silent in its radiant garden as if its gay creations were all the work of magic”.
Round furnaces were noted and the Director kept the composition of the green-grey Deck Clay secret.
In La Faience he says he could not give fixed formula's on Faience body as it depended on locality.
The Gazette reporter was in no doubt to the overall quality of the enamel, meaning of course the glaze saying. “Extroadarily lustrous, reflecting the light from every protruding boss angle, and curve, as if from burnished glass”.
Deck's love of chemistry enabled him to write with fluidity but merely reading about it does not give a craftsman the level of skill he had. You have to do it.
All potters should bow down to the techniques laid down by Deck.
Many of his glaze recipes are printed in his book but as previously stated that's only half of replicating his work.
By 1887 many other companies had formulated their own Persian Blue but it was thought it was derived from inspiration of Theodore Deck.
Long before I know Le Bleu Deck I knew Lachenal Blue from my buying trips to France.
I have an unavoidable attraction to its distinctive velvet sheen. I did not notice so much at first the patterns of deck mixing these in my mind with traditional Iznik pieces. I have purchased pieces by Lachenal that may have been from Deck's own atelier by style.
I do not own La Fiaence yet but the inspiration from which I choose to write, is from the well researched account of Deck's work by Peter Hyland for the Northern Ceramics Society Journal Volume 33.
Peter writes about Deck's move into Gold ground inspired by seeing the mosaics in St marks in Venice where he exhibited in 1873.
He tells us how he mixes glaze and creates lustre, texture and even the way he applies. Yes if it was that easy.
The 1880's sees more of his Chinese ware accompanied by Japanese.
In 1878 Deck was nominated Officier de la legion d'Honneur.
In 1880 he exhibited a flambe glaze by a reduction firing.
Sevres were conduction flambe experiments by official ministry. The Commission de Perfectionment that had been set up in 1872 described Deck's 20 exhibits as remarkable and unforgettable.
In 1887 he was offered the post of Art Director at Sevres on the departure of Charles Lauth at the age of 64. He felt he had to accept even with ill health.
Xavier his brother was entrusted with the day to day running of production.
Deck, a practical man found it hard to cope with the tradition and management structure at Sevres. The aftermath of Lauth's departure saw him caught up in the middle of politics at Sevres.
He was accused of using his postion to enhance his own factory, but he stook at it exhibiting his Grosse Porcelaine in the 1889 Exposition Universalle.
He died in May 1891. His remarkable brother Xavier continued the business and exhibited at London's Grafton galleries in 1893, in Paris 1896 and in Brussels 1897, all with success.
Without Deck's innovation it did not move with the times into, art Nouveau that cut across Europe at blistering speed. Xavier died in 1904 and the pottery closed. It was demolished two years later.

As a national figure Theodore was given the honour of burial in Montparnasse cemetry where so many of Frances cultural innovators were buried.
In 2013 he was featured on a postage stamp.
Decks gravestone was designed by Auguste Bartholdi, who designed the statue of liberty. It incorporated faience panels in Deck Bleu and was inscribed 'erpuit coelo lumen'-translated it reads.
“He snatched the light from the heavens”.
The headstone was encrusted with a portrait medallion by Ferdinand Levillian.
There were other potters of course but they must all acknowledge Theodore Deck.